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Dictionary of Select and Popular Quotations, 9th edition. On no revision of the Dispensatory did the authors bestow so much labour as on the one preparatory to the fifth edition. Escharotics or Caustics, which destroy the life of the part upon which they act: c. Emollients, which serve as vehicles for the application of warmth and moisture, at the same time excluding the air: d. It is believed that all substances employed as medicines, with the excep- tion of a very few which are so peculiar in their action as scarcely to admit of classification, may be distributed without violence among the above classes. It is found in all the commercial varieties of gum, but least in that from Egypt. Binoxalate of potassa is in rhomboidal crystals, of a sour, pungent, bitterish taste, soluble in forty parts of cold and six parts of boiling water (Kane), and unalterable in the air. Twenty-two gallons of good vinegar, boiling hot, are first introduced into each vinegar cask, and, at the end of eight days, about two gallons of the wine, drawn off clear, are added; and the same quantity is added every eight days, until the casks are full. This is an indigenous perennial plant, the leaves of which spring immediately from the root, and spread on the ground in the form of a star. The dose in substance is from half a drachm to a drachm, or even two drachms, of the fresh bulb. The dose is from five to thirty grains, repeated every two or three hours, either given in powder mixed with powdered gum or sugar, or dissolved in syrup or mucilage. S., Lond., Ed., Dub.; Liquor Hydrargyri Bichloridi, Lond.; Spiritus Ammoniae, U. Don considers it a corruption of Armeniacum, originating in the circumstance that the gum-resin was formerly imported into Europe through Armenia. Ammoniac comes either in the state of tears, or in aggregate masses, and in both forms is frequently mixed with impurities. It has been employed externally, dissolved in water in the proportion of one drop to a fluidounce, in prurigo senilis and other cases of troublesome itching. Bigland's Natural History of Birds, Fishes, &c, 12 coloured plates, fancy paper. The Gentlemen and Ladies' Book of Politeness, and Propriety of Deport- ment, by Mrs. In the preparation of the fourth edition, many changes were rendered necessary by the previous publica- tion of the revised London Pharmacopoeia of 1836. Epis- pastics or Vesicatories, which produce a serous discharge beneath the cuticle, forming a blister; and 3. Demulcents, which lubricate the surface to which they are applied and prevent the contact of irritating substances or mingle with these and dimmish their acrimony; and 2. Antacids, which neutralize acid, whether existing in the alimentary canal, or circulating with the blood. It melts with difficulty in the mouth; and adheres tenaciously to the teeth. Cap- sules opening elastically at the corners, five-angled. The same salt may be prepared by exactly neutralizing with potassa one part of oxalic acid in solution, then adding one part more of the acid, and evaporating the solution so that it may crystallize upon coolino-. The wine intended to be converted into vinegar is kept in separate casks, containing beech shavings, on which the lees are deposited. Its juice is also fre- quently administered mixed with sugar. was at one time highly recommended, and the syrup is officinal. Several cases of pectoral disease, simu- lating incipient phthisis, are reported to have been cured by this salt in Otto's Bibliothek for 1834. Watson, it is a very effica- cious remedy in hemicrania. The name of the drug is thought to have been derived from the temple of Jupiter Ammon in the Lybian desert, where the ammoniac of the ancients is said to have been collected; but Mr. It may be administered in emulsion with gum Arabic, loaf sugar, and water. One among the most distinguished of the medical faculty, in noticing the great value of this work to the student and practitioner, says, " We there- fore hailed with no inconsiderable pleasure the appearance of the Dispen- satory of the United States, convinced from our knowledge of its authors *1 GRIGG & ELLIOT'S CATALOGUE. "A knowledge of Natural History is not only valuable, but deeply inte- resting; and no one's education can, with such facilities as these works afford, be considered complete without it." — National Intelligencer. Goldsmith's Animated Nature, beautifully illustrated, 2 vols. Laivence Sterne's Works, with a Life of the Author, written by himself, 8vo. By some physicians it is thought to possess a posi- tively sedative influence over the action of inflamed surfaces to which it is applied in the state of solution. For- merly it was supposed that these liquors did not contain alcohol, but were merely capable of furnishing it, in consequence of a new arrangement of their ultimate constituents, the result of the heat applied. It has been employed in medicine from the highest antiquity, being mentioned in the writings of Hippocrates.

The distinguished editor of the North American Medical and Surgical Journal, speaking of this work, says,' — "The work of Dr. It does much credit to his industry and learning, while it places in a very favourable point of view his abilities as a practitioner. The authors, however, have endeavoured to select and condense from the periodical journals, and from recent European treatises, every thing of value which came within the scope of the work; and, in offering it for the seventh time to the public, they feel themselves justified in expressing the hope that it will be found, not less than formerly, to meet the wishes of the medical and pharmaceutical community. By the viscidity of its solution, it serves to cover and sheathe inflamed surfaces; and by blending with and diluting irritating matters, tends to blunt their acrimony. The fresh plant, eaten raw, is said t'o be useful in scorbutic cases. How this change takes place is not well known, but it is designated by some authors as the saccharine fermentation. The bitterness is extracted by alcohol, and the tincture becomes turbid upon the addition of water. In small doses the root appears to be simply tonic, and may be employed advantageously for similar purposes with other bitters of the same class. The powder may be administered as a tonic in the dose of ten grains. Braconnot obtained 18-4 per cent, of gum, 70-0 ol resin, 4-4 of a gluten-like substance (bassorin), and 6-0 of water, with 1.2 per cent, of loss. If the calculation of Wohler and Liebig be correct as to the quantity of acid it contains, not more than a fluidrachm should be iriven as a com- mencing dose.

The talents, industry, and variety of research necessary for the production of a system of Practical Medicine, are possessed by few, and when we say, as we do with great candour, that the Treatise before us will bear a very favourable comparison with any modern work of the same class, while it is far superior, as well in regard to the soundness of its pathological views, generally speaking, as to the excellence of its therapeu- tic precepts, to the more popular of the English systems, we confer upon it and its author no mean praise." THE DISPENSATORY OF THE UNITED STATES: con- sisting of 1st. D , Professor of Materia Medica and Pharmacy in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy; and Franklin Bache, M. (Cr* The only readable Edition published in this country. Hence it is advantageously employed in catarrhal affections and irritation of the fauces, by being held in the mouth and al- lowed slowly to dissolve. Oxalis crassicaulis, a Peruvian species, yields an edible root, and, by expression from its leaves, a very sour and astringent juice, which is em- ployed in the form of syrup, in hemorrhages, chronic catarrh, bowel affec- tions, and gonorrhoea, with asserted advantage. Thus Kirchoff proved, that if a mixture of gluten from flour, and starch from potatoes, be put into hot water, the starch will be converted into sugar. The decoction is moderately bitter; but much less so than the tincture. Hagen succeeded in procuring the volatile oil in a sepa- rate state by repeated distillation with water.

EBERLE'S PRACTICE OF MEDICINE.— A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Medicine, in 2 vols. D., and other distinguished Physicians, embracing all the late improve- ments and discoveries in Practice. It was the aim of the authors, by pruning redundances and concentrating the new matter within the smallest space, to swell the Dispensatory as little as consisted with the great object of utility; but, with all their endeavours, they were compelled to exceed the former limits by more than one hundred pages. Thus Narcotics fre- quently promote sleep and relieve pain, and, in relation to these properties, are called Soporifics and Anodynes; and various medicines, which, by diversified modes of action, serve to remove chronic inflammation and en- largements of the glands or viscera, are called Deobstruents. Flour or starch is sometimes fraudulently added to the powder, but is easily detected by the blue colour which it produces with solution of iodine. Both salts are kept in the shops under the names of salt of sorrel and essential salt of lemons, and are employed for removing iron part i. Both are poisonous, though in a less degree than uncombined oxalic' acid. This and other species of sorrel are refrigerant ; and their infusion, or a whey made by boiling them in milk, may be used as a pleasant drink in febrile and inflammatory affections. To determine this point, the vinegar makers plunge a stave into the cask; and if, upon withdrawing it, they find it covered 3 14 Acetum. Certain vegetable infusions, as those of potatoes and rice, though con- sisting almost entirely of starch, are, nevertheless, capable of undergoing the vinous fermentation, and form seeming exceptions to the rule, that sugar is the only substance susceptible of this fermentation. Tt terminates in a slender scattered spike, the flowers of which stand on very short pedicels, and have minute bractes at the base. The corolla is tubular, oblong, divided at the summit into six spreading segments, of a white colour, and, when old, of a mealy or rugose ap- pearance on the outside. An ounce of the salt, dissolved in nine fluidounces of water and one of alcohol, forms a solution of convenient strength. The smell of ammoniac is peculiar, and stronger in the mass than in the tears. It burns with a white flame, swelling up, and emitting a smoke of a strong, resinous, slightly alliaceous odour. The alcoholic solution is transparent, but is rendered milky by the addition of water. This mixture contains, according to the above named chemists, one grain of absolute hydrocyanic acid, and is equivalent to two fluidounces of fresh cherry-laurel water.

This is one of the most valuable works on the Practice of Medicine that has ever issued from the American or English press. Comparatively little addition was required in the sixth edition; and the same remark is applicable to the present. U.$.-«Thv Pharmacopeia of the United States of America By authority of the National Medical Convention, held at Washington, A. These terms are occasionally employed in the following pages, and are here ex- plained, in order that the sense in which we use them may be accurately understood. In consequence of the impurities, and difference in quality, gum Arabic should generally be assorted for pharmaceutical use. This gum is used in medicine chiefly as a demulcent. A solution of the binoxalate of potassa is used on the continent of Europe, as a substitute for lemonade. PART U with froth, they judge that the fermentation is going on properly, and, ac- cordingly, add more wine. The apparent excep- tion is explained by the circumstance, that starch is susceptible of a spon- taneous change which converts it into sugar. The plant is found in almost all parts of the United States, growing in fields and about the borders of woods, and flower- ing in June and July. The root, which is the officinal portion, is small, crooked, branched, blackish externally, brown within, and intensely bitter. When the solution is to be used as a wash for ulcers, or an injection in leucorrhcea, it should not contain more than from one to four drachms of the salt to a pint of water. The taste is slightly sweetish, bitter, and somewhat acrid. It is partly soluble in water, alcohol, ether, vinegar, and alkaline solutions. Bucholz obtained from 100 parts of ammoniac, 22-4 parts of gum, 72-0 of resin, 1-6 of bassorin, and 4-0 of water including volatile oil and loss. If it be found to answer in practice, it will have the great advantage of certainty in relation to the dose; as amygdalin may be kept any length of time unal- tered.

VALUABLE WORKS FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIBRARIES, PUBLISHED BY GRIGG & ELLIOT. In pharmacy, gum Arabic is extensively used for the suspension of insoluble substances in water, and for the formation of pills and troches. If lighter than this, they are said to be above proof; if heavier, below proof; and the per centage of water, or of spirit of 0*825, necessary to be added to any sample of spirit to bring it to the standard of proof spirit, indicates the number of degrees the given sample is above or below proof. 63 The sugar, supposing it cane-sugar, is first changed into grape sugar, or, according to Mitscherlich and Soubeiran, into uncrystallizable sugar. In a diluted state, and taken in small quantity, it excites the system, renders the pulse full, communicates additional, energy to the muscles, and gives temporary exaltation to the mental facul- ties.

The American Chesterfield, containing a complete Treatise on Carving, with cuts. The new editions of the United States and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias required comment; and the recent phar- macological treatises of Dr. Christison, containing' much original observation, and the Medical Flora of Dr. Some substances, however, in addition to the properties of the classes to which they are severally attached, possess others in common, which give them practical value, and authorize their association in distinct groups, not recognised in the system of classification, but constantly referred to in medical language. Its peculiarities may probably be ascribed to variable proportions of bassorin associated with the soluble arabin. It contains 72 parts or two equivalents of oxalic acid, 47-15 parts or one equivalent of potassa, and 18 parts or two equivalents of water. After this, the vinegar takes about fifteen days to form. Hence have originated the popular names of star grass, blazing star, and mealy starwort, by which it is known in different parts of the country. It is very little used as an internal remedy in the United States; but is a good deal employed on the continent of Europe, especially in Germany, where it is deemed a powerful alterative and resolvent. That of the tears, however, is preferable, as the purest may be conveniently picked out and kept for use. To facilitate the solution in water, the oil may be previously dissolved in spirit.

VALUABLE H3ED3GAL BOOKS, PUBLISHED BY GRIGG & ELLIOT, NO. Lindley, not to speak of other valuable works in different departments of Materia Medica and Pharmacy, afforded a great mass of new material for selection and arrange- ment. Thus we have Refrigerants, which, when in- ternally administered, diminish animal temperature; Alteratives, which change, in some inexplicable and insensible manner, certain morbid actions of the system; and Carminatives, which, by promoting contraction in the muscular coat of the stomach and bowels, cause the expulsion of flatus. Be- tween these two varieties of gum there are insensible gradations, so that it would be difficult always to classify the specimens which may come under notice. In parcels of gum Arabic there are some- times pieces of a dark colour, opaque, and incorporated with ligneous, earthy, or other impurities. Quadroxalate of potassa is often substituted for the binoxalate. At the end of that time, only half the contents of each cask is drawn off; and it is filled up again by the addition of two gallons of wine every eight days as at first. The leaves are sessile, lanceolate, entire, pointed, very smooth, longitudi- nally veined, and of unequal size, the largest being about four inches in length. Externally, muriate of ammonia is used in solution as a stimulant and resolvent in contusions, indolent tumours, &c. These are of an irregular shape, usually more or less globular, opaque, yellowish on the outside, whitish within, compact, homogeneous, brittle when cold, and breaking with a conchoidal shining fracture. Wohler and Liebig propose, as a substitute for cherry-laurel water, which owes its effects to the hydrocyanic acid it contains, but is objectionable from its unequal strength, an extemporaneous mixture, consisting of 17 grains of amygdalin, and one fluidounce. S., Lond., Ed., Dub.; Mistura Camphoree, Ed.; Oleum Amygdalarum, Dub.; Syrupus Amyg- dala?

9 NORTH FOURTH STREET, PHILADELPHIA, AND FOR SALE BY BOOKSELLERS GENERALLY IN THE UNITED STATES. D., late Professor of Materia Medica and Obstetrics in the Medical Colleges of Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Lexington, Ky., &c., &c, with notes and additions by George Mc Clellan, M. The periodical press had also presented much that demanded notice; and the changes in the commerce in drugs, and the various modi- fications in pharmaceutical operations, resulting from increased experience and the advancement of science, called for careful personal examination and inquiry. It is common, moreover, to attach distinct names to groups of remedies, with reference to certain effects which are incident to the properties that serve to arrange them in some more comprehensive class. The inferior are often mixed with or substi- tuted for the better kinds, especially in powder; and portions of insoluble gum, bdellium, and other concrete juices of unknown origin are found among the genuine. It is prepared in the same manner, except that, instead of one part, three parts of the acid are added to the original portion neutralized by potassa. 13 mould and ink stains from linen, and sometimes as a test for lime. " Impure dilute acetic acid prepared by fermentation." U. In some cases, however, the quantity of wine added, and the intervals between the successive additions, are greater or less than those here indicated; the variations in this respect depending upon the progress of the fermentation. From the midst of them a flower stem rises, one or two feet in height, nearly naked, with remote scales, which sometimes become leaves. The strength of the solution must be varied according to the intention in view. The masses are of a darker colour and less uniform structure, appearing, when broken, as if composed of numerous white or whitish tears, embedded in a dirty gray or brownish substance, and frequently mingled with foreign matters, such as seeds, fragments of vegetables, and sand, or other earth. When heated, the gum-resin softens and becomes adhesive, but does not melt. water, it forms an opaque milky emulsion, which becomes clear upon stand- ing. of an emulsion made with two drachms of sweet almonds, and a sufficient quantity of water.

If a poison, and likely to be accidentally taken, or purposely employed as such, its peculiar toxi- cological effects, together with the mode of counteracting them, are indicated ; and the best means of detecting its presence by reagents are explained. The physician may often be placed in situations, in which it may be highly important that he should be able to recognise the vegetable which yields a particular medicine ; and the apothecary is constantly liable to imposition from the collec- tors of herbs, unless possessed of the means of distinguishing, by in- fallible marks, the various products presented to him. — Chemical Equivalent, or the number representing the smallest quantity in which one body usually combines with others. Astrin- gents, which have the property of producing contraction in the living tissues with which they may come in contact. LOCAL REMEDIES may be divided into four sections : a. Emetics, which act on the stomach, producing vomiting; 2. When burnt, it leaves about three per cent, of ashes, consisting, according to Guerin, of the car- bonates of potassa and lime, a little phosphate of lime, chloride of potas- sium, oxide of iron, alumina, magnesia, and silica. The leaflets are obcordate, entire, hairy, of a yel- lowish-green colour, but frequently purplish on their under surface. Vinegar is a sour liquid, the product of the acetous fermentation. It has been given with advantage in chronic catarrh, humoral asthma, and other pectoral affections in which the symptoms of inflammation have been subdued, and a feeble condition of the vessels remains. Muriate of ammonia, at a red heat, sublimes without decomposition, as its mode of preparation proves Exposed to a damp atmosphere, it becomes slightly moist. gummiferum, under the impres- sion that it must be the true source of the medicine. Med.), and its product is thought to be the ammoniacum of the ancients, which was ob- tained from Africa; but this is not the drug now used under that name, which is derived exclusively from Persia. Fontanier, who resided many years in Persia, saw the ammoniac plant growing in the province of Fars, and transmitted a drawing of it with specimens to Paris. The benzoic acid which the oil of bitter almonds deposits upon standing, has been proved by Robiquet and Boutron not to pre-exist in the oil, but to result from the absorption of oxygen; and Wohler and Liebig have rendered it probable that there exists a radical in the oil, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which, though it has not yet been isolated, is a distinct substance, and constitutes the basis of numerous compounds. Blanched, and rubbed up with hot water, they form an emulsion well adapted to coughs depending on or associated with nervous irritation. From the above explanations, it may be easily understood that the cold bath will act very differently under different circumstances.

If a chemical preparation, the mode and principles of its manufacture are indicated in addition to the other particulars. In relation to all indigenous medicinal plants, and those naturalized or cultivated in this country, the advantages of such descriptions are obvious. Tonics, which moderately and perma- nently exalt the energies of all parts of the frame, without necessarily producing any apparent increase of the healthy actions; and 5. At a red heat it is decomposed, yielding, among other substances, a minute proportion of ammonia. The wood-sorrel is a small perennial, herbaceous, stemless plant, with numerous radical leaves, which are all ternate, and supported upon slender hairy petioles. Moderately employed, it is beneficial in enfeebled digestion and flatulence; and is habitually used as a condiment by many who have no objection to an offensive breath. The salt may thus be made to granulate and in this state, after having been drained from the remaining solution and dried may be readily powdered. It was gene- rally believed to be a species of Ferula, till Willdenow raised, from some seeds mixed with the gum-resin found in the shops, a plant which he ascer- tained to be an Heracleum, and named II. The same remark is applicable to the essential oils of the cherry laurel, of the bird cherry, and probably of other vegetables supposed to contain hydrocy- anic acid. The kernels have more of the peculiar powers of hydrocyanic acid, and therefore require to be used with some caution. If the cold bath were applied at a temperature just sufficient to excite a cool sen- sation, and this temperature were gradually lowered, it is probable that it would act exclusively as a sedative.

We have not been disappointed in these expectations, and feel fully per- suaded that it will take the first rank among works of this character. Ruschenberger's excellent series of elementary text-books, designed for the use of Colleges GRIGG & ELLIOT'S CATALOGUE. Eight volumes have already appeared, comprising the following divisions ; Anatomy and Phy- siology ; Mammalogy ; Ornithology ; Herpetology and Ichthyology ; C n- chology ; Entomology ; Botany and Geology. If not positively sedative, it is certainly not in the least irritating, while it is sufficiently nourishing to prevent the inju- rious action of the organs upon themselves. Lond., Ed., Dub.; Pulvis Crete Compositus, Lond., Dub.; Pulvis Tra- gacanthse Compositus, Lond., Ed.; Trochisci Acaciae, Ed. His method consists in precipitating the acid and colouring matter part i. 59 from each vinous liquor by subacetate of lead, and separating tbe water by- carbonate of potassa. According to the former, litharge, in fine powder, is the best agent for precipitating the colouring matter. It is thought to have been useful in some cases of amenorrhcea, and in chlorotic and hysterical conditions of the system arising out of this complaint.

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